Drivetrain transmission

I am confused on how you build a transmission/ pto. how do the gears work, and how do the pistons work?

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Even though i haven’t ever used this, i’m pretty sure it’s using pneumatics pulling the gears together, sort of how it works in a car.

The cylinders shift states between two interlocking gear ratios. This works by sliding a gear (typically beveled) in between two different gear ratios to accomplish different speeds.
Here are two videos of transmissions:

This video uses a motor to shift between gears, but this can be easily done with pneumatics.

A pto is different, and it uses cylinders to shift motor power between two different subsystems. This can be done in a variety of methods. Below is a simple example of pto:

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let me know if you have questions

also look at 8:28 for the other pto design

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There’s lots of good info and pictures of a very competitive old robot with a pneumatic shifter here:

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