Has anyone done any work into seeing how much force is needed when shooting a ball to fully toggle a flag, no matter position on the field?
Depends. some flags slide around super easy, while others are nearly impossible to turn with a normal launcher. but generally speaking, if you can hit a flag straight on with a ball, it will most likely be enough to turn it. its quite difficult to hit one and have it not turn, unless it is one of those nasty stiff flags
Yes, it varies from competition to competition. And furthermore from field to field. If you have enough people, I would recommend having someone watch which flags are stiff so that you don’t waste time and balls trying to toggle them to no avail.