12C Smart Ports - You probably mean I²C (Inter-Integrated Circuits), again a communication port. Used for Integrated Motor Encoders, but more (processor?) focused, because IMEs have a processor in them.
High-Resolution Analogue Ports (12 bit) - More Serial Ports on the Cortex, used for some sensors
Config hole - I actually don’t know what this is
PWM - The metric for the power of a motor, a signed 8-bit integer from -127 to 127
Control Signal - A pulse of electricity used to indicated some sort of command over a communication protocol
Rx1 & Rx2 - More Communication Ports. You probably ment Rx and Tx.
These are not serial ports. There are 8 ports (plug ins) on the VEX Cortex labeled “Analog”. Each port can be measured by an A/D converter, which is a sensitive voltmeter. The notation “12 bit” means the numbers reported by the A/D converter have that level of accuracy. A 12 bit number can range from 0 to 4096. Since the full range of the analog input (that is, the full range the internal “voltmeter” can measure) is 0 volts to 5 volts, you divide 5 into 4096 parts to determine what a single bit change means in an analog input. When you do, you find that a single bit change in an anolog reading corresponds to a change of 0.00122 volts.
Sensors of various kinds can be hooked to the analog ports.
This is a small reset switch recessed into the end of the Cortex. The hole through which the switch is accessed is labeled “Config.” Pressing that switch with a ball point pen or a toothpick during powerup will put the Cortex back into a known default state from which it can be reconfigured. You really shouldn’t need to do this very often; maybe never.