So this morning I decided to do some physics reading on VEX mechanisms and found this old beauty of a VEX EDR learning curriculum: https://curriculum.vexrobotics.com/curriculum/mechanical-power-transmission/applying-gear-ratios-to-dc-motor-systems.html

So it seems that this curriculum uses DC motors instead of the speed, torque, and regular motors I use in my school robotics team.

The link I have provided leads to an article that explains how to calculate a nescessary Gear reduction for a mechanism that can lift a 30-newton object.

I know V5 and DC motors are vastly different, but out of curiosity, how do I calculate the nescessary gear reduction/ratio if I am lifting an object that is of a certain weight(in kg), without going beyond the motorâ€™s limit?

Additionally, If the article states that the mechanism must lift a â€ś30 newtonâ€ť object, what are â€śnewtonsâ€ť and is this something that weight is measured in?

All help is appreciated, and also I havenâ€™t learnt much physics yet in school. Thanks Yâ€™all.