Is there a way to write text to a text file on my computer using pros?
You could write to an SD card if you wanted:
You could also pipe the output of the terminal to a file
prosv5 terminal > file.txt
Unfortunately, there is no way to disable the PROS banner, though this is somewhat of a workaround using bash:
prosv5 terminal --no-banner | tail -n +19 > file.txt
This removes the first 19 lines of the output, you may have to adjust that.